Violence against women in India

INRODUCTION

Violence against women is a gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence. It has got very long history though the incident and intensity of violence is varying over the changing time. Ans this may arise from the sense of entitlement, superiority, misogyny.

Violence against women and girls is a problem of pandemic proportions.at least one out of every three women around the world has been beaten, coerced into sex, or abused throughout her lifetime.


TYPES OF VIOLENCE

1.       Marital Rape

2.       Domestic Violence

3.       Honour killing

4.       Dowry violence

5.       Forced marriage

6.       Acid throwing

7.       Forced abortion

8.       Sexual violence

9.       Mistreatment of widows

10.   Rape

 

1.       MARITAL RAPE - Marital or spousal rape was once widely condoned or ignored by law, and is now widely considered an unacceptable violence against women and repudiated by international conventions and increasingly criminalized. Still, in many countries, spousal rape either remains legal, or is illegal but widely tolerated and accepted as a husband's prerogative. In Canada, marital rape was made illegal in 1983, when several legal changes were made, including changing the rape statute to sexual assault, and making the laws gender neutral.

2.       DOMESTIC VIOLENCE- Domestic violence is violence committed by someone in the victim’s domestic circle. This includes partners and ex-partners, immediate family members, other relatives and family friends. The term ‘domestic violence’ is used when there is a close relationship between the offender and the victim. There is usually a power gap between them. The victim is dependent on the offender. Domestic violence can take the form of physical, sexual or psychological abuse.

           Forms of domestic violence

         The following are forms of domestic violence:

  • Child abuse
  • senior abuse;
  • honour based violence such as honour killings, female genital mutilation (‘female circumcision’) and forced marriage;
  • all forms of abuse by an intimate partner or former intimate partner, including psychological abuse and stalking.

           Victims of domestic violence

Women form the largest group of victims. However, men, children and elderly people can also be victims of domestic violence. Domestic violence occurs at all levels in society and     in all population groups.

 Abuse is usually deliberate, but not always. For example, sometimes people can no longer     cope with caring for relatives. The situation can then escalate and result in abuse.

3.        RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT-All rape and sexual assault is serious. The terms rape and 'sexual assault' are used simply to differentiate between two types of offence. So, what's the difference?  Rape is when a person intentionally having sexual intercourse without the other person's consent. The overall definition of sexual or indecent assault is an act of physical, psychological and emotional violation in the form of a sexual act, inflicted on someone without their consent. It can involve forcing or manipulating someone to witness or participate in any sexual acts. Not all cases of sexual assault involve violence, cause physical injury or leave visible marks. Sexual assault can cause severe distress, emotional harm and injuries which can't be seen – all of which can take a long time to recover from. This is why we use the term 'assault', and treat reports just as seriously as those of violent, physical attacks.

4.       HONOUR KILLINGS- Is a common form of violence against women in certain parts of the world. Honour killings are perpetrated by family members (usually husbands, fathers, uncles or brothers) against women in the family who are believed to have placed dishonour to the family. The death of the dishonourable woman is believed to restore honour. These killings are a traditional practice, believed to have originated from tribal customs where an allegation against a woman can be enough to defile a family's reputation. Women are killed for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their relatives, attempting to leave a marriage, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways that are deemed inappropriate.[89][91] Although honour killings are most often associated with the Middle East and South Asia, they occur in other parts of the world too. In India, honour killings occur in the northern regions of the country, especially in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. In Turkey, honour killings are a serious problem in South-eastern Anatolia

5.       DOWRY VIOLENCE- The custom of dowry, which is common in South Asia, especially in India, is the trigger of many forms of violence against women. Bride burning is a form of violence against women in which a bride is killed at home by her husband or husband's family due to his dissatisfaction over the dowry provided by her family. Dowry death refers to the phenomenon of women and girls being killed or committing suicide due to disputes regarding dowry. Dowry violence is common in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. In India, in 2011 alone, the National Crime Records Bureau reported 8,618 dowry deaths, while unofficial figures suggest the numbers to be at least three times higher.

6.       FORCED ABORTION- A forced abortion may occur when the perpetrator causes abortion by force, threat or coercion, or by taking advantage of female's incapability to give her consent, or where she gives her consent under duress. This may also include the instances when the conduct was neither justified by medical or hospital treatment. Like forced sterilization, forced abortion may include a physical invasion of female reproductive organs.

7.       FORCED MARRIAGE- Is a marriage in which one or both of the parties is married against their will. Forced marriages are common in South Asia, the Middle East and Africa. The customs of bride price and dowry, that exist in many parts of the world, contribute to this practice. A forced marriage is also often the result of a dispute between families, where the dispute is 'resolved' by giving a female from one family to the other.

8.       ACID THROWING- Also called acid attack, or vitriol age, is defined as the act of throwing acid onto the body of a person "with the intention of injuring or disfiguring [them] out of jealousy or revenge". The most common types of acid used in these attacks are sulfuric, nitric, or hydrochloric acid. Perpetrators of these attacks throw acid at their victims, usually at their faces, burning them, and damaging skin tissue, often exposing and sometimes dissolving the bones. The long term consequences of these attacks include blindness and permanent scarring of the face and body. Women and girls are the victims in 75-80% of cases. Acid attacks are often connected to domestic disputes, including dowry disputes, and refusal of a proposal of marriage, or of sexual advances. Such attacks are common in South Asia, in countries such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, India; and in Southeast Asia, especially in Cambodia.

9.       MISTREATMENT OF WIDOWS- Drafters should recognize that the maltreatment of widows encompasses various types of human rights violations. Widows face maltreatment that includes domestic violence, sexual assault, forced marriage, trafficking, property grabbing, conversion of property, forced evictions, as well as discrimination against women in regard to marriage, its dissolution and divorce, property and land rights, children and inheritance. Civil and criminal laws must address and prohibit all of these forms, protect the rights of women and girls, provide a legal remedy, and promote accountability for perpetrators.

EFFECTS ON SOCIETY

This issue still remains one of the most pervasive form of human right violations and this can occur both in public and private spheres of life. Many women are terrified from these threats and this create a negative impact on their life.

Other than the issue of social division, violence can also have a great impact on health of the women, like HIV/AIDS. and this disease is also the cause of violence in the society.

Note:

From the current scenario of women in the country, certain programmes and policy is to be made for the security of women and to protect their fundamental rights.

‘SAAHAS’

As the name suggest, our organisation will teach women to be courageous and to fight for her security and raise their voice against wrong done to them.

EXECUTION

We can have our office in Delhi with a dedicated team who will be focusing on the commitment and objectives towards women safety.

As a nodal body, we will linkup with various NGOs, school, colleges so as to spread insights and social awareness about the issues concerning to women in present times.

STRUCTURE OF SAAHAS

·       Enquiry officers who will try to reconciliate with mutual settlement and is there is no scope of mutual settlement it will be dealt with the officers.

·       Counsellor will be briefing the development session with women and provide them with the better career ideas.

·       Mediation- mediator will be appointed by the having a link with mediators and the main motive will be to mediate and solve the problem by negotiating in topics like divorce, streedhan, alimony etc. with a meeting with both the parties in given time frame.

·       Facilitating legal. Aid from Delhi legal service so that women can get enjoy free legal aid.

·       Girls can get opportunities to play in the park freely and involve herself in physical games. So we should make safer society and let others girl and every women step outside the house.

·       Self-defence training unit will be giving trins to women and girls from schools and colleges for their own security.

·       Helpline cell where women suffering from any issues can call up and book a meeting for resolving these issues.

OBJECTIVE OF SAAHAS

·       TO provide immediate intervention and assistance to women and children in crisis.

·       To address case of dowry, domestic violence, trafficking, abuse.

·       To promote support to family or spouses who are facing disputes,

·       To spread awareness about social issues relating to women.

·       To create a strong link between media, police,

·       To encourage civil society in preventing crimes against women

·       To build opportunities for women empowerment.

·       Girls can get opportunities to play in the park freely and involve herself in physical games. So we should make safer society and let others girl and every women step outside the house.

 

ENDING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND GIRLS

The impact of violence ranges from long term physical, mental, sexual health consequences that sometimes it may even lead to death. It impacts negatively on the well being of the women and prevent s them from fully participating in the society.

Nan unprecedented countries have got the laws and policies for the violence against women. But for implementing these policies they face a lot of challenges. Many women still lack in the sectors like getting free services of health, police, justice, social support to ensure for safety and prevention of crimes against them in the society.

·       Agreements at international level provides for basic level of support to women for implementing the laws and policies and align with international support.

·       We need to link up with UN for the promotion of our project at international level.

·       We also need to link up with government and other civil organization to prevent and response to violence for spreading awareness regarding the consequences of the crime.

·       We can conduct online seminars which will have knowledge regarding the protection of women and making women aware about these crimes and its repercussions.

 

WHY TO IMPLEMENT THIS PROGRAM?

Violence and discrimination can blight women’s lives and hold them back from playing a full part in the workplace, society and the economy. We’re taking action to improve women’s rights and safety in the communities in which we operate.

Women safety has to be our priority. It’s important for everyone - from the government to corporates and individuals – to join hands to make India a safer place for women to work and live freely in society.

WHAT MEN CAN DO TO STOP VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

·       Choose your words carefully and respectfully when speaking of women in your life

·       Show your strength by speaking up to men who are using their strength for hurting

·       Refuse to let TV, movies, music or other people define what it means to be a man for you

·       Understand that it takes more than just not being a batterer or a rapist to be a good guy

·       Treat all women and girls with respect

·       Don’t patronize sex workers or strip clubs

·       Ask, don’t assume you know what your partner wants

·       Get involved with the Men Can Stop Rape movement at www.mencanstoprape.com

·       Refuse to coerce or manipulate your partner in order to get your way; be willing to compromise

HOW CAN WE BRING DIFFERENCE?

1.       EDUCATION FOR PREVENTION- Putting young people aware about it make it stronger. So, we make a program for young groups to educate about crimes relating to women by developing a non-formal education system at free OF COST.

2.       EXPANDING ACCESS TO SERVICE- To address sexual harassment and other forms of sexual violence in public spaces, IN COLLABORATION WTH GOVERNMENT IMPLEMENTS the safe city initiative in over 10 cities including centre.

3.       ADVOCACY- make concrete pledges to take action on ending violence against women. It has garnered support for other high-profile initiatives from government, including celebrities, to raise the profile of the issue.

4.       IMPROVING KNOWLEDGE AND EVIDENCE- this will be organised virtually to end violence against girls and women by giving details on how to implement law and policies and programmes with access to case studies for recommendation.

5.       EXPANDING ACCESS TO SERVICES- h progress is being made globally, many women and girls who experience physical and sexual violence still lack access to quality services. Such services include keeping women and girls safe, providing health care for their injuries, responding to their sexual and reproductive health needs, including provision of post-rape care and counselling, and facilitating their access to the police and justice system. Essential Services Programme to improve the quality of and access to services by reaching a global understanding on the range of services and responses required and the corresponding standards for providing such services.

 

We can change this

We can change the harmful beliefs at the core of this problem. What was learned can be unlearned. It is time for us all, women, men, girls, boys and key public actors to end violence against women and girls.


By Saumaya Rai


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